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Opinion: "Minimalism and Immersion"
by Matthew Downey on 10/17/11 01:00:00 pm   Featured Blogs

The following blog post, unless otherwise noted, was written by a member of Gamasutra’s community.
The thoughts and opinions expressed are those of the writer and not Gamasutra or its parent company.


[Matt Downey is a programmer working on a surrealist science fiction first-person shooter in Unity3d.  A hopeful indie, he strives to have a working version of his game by E3 2013.]

It has been said that true immersion is nonexistent.  There are those who claim that the best way to show the player time-sensitive, game-changing information is in the form of non-diegetic user interfaces.  Sure, it is convention, but too much information can be overwhelming or, at least, hard to keep track of.

Before reading any further in this article, I recommend that you skim this.

Minimalism--"Use of the fewest and barest essentials or elements, as in the arts, literature, or design."

Immersion--"State of being deeply engaged or involved; absorption."

My definition of minimalism:  no HUD, no debris, no invisible barriers, no one inch walls, no unnecessary objects, and no misleading objects. 

The Gun

Since I first read this article, I have been annoyed about the association between first person shooters and looking down ironsights.  Knowledge of an equipped gun only helps the player make tactical decisions, and once the player knows his/her weapon (s)he is unlikely to forget it.

That being said, textures can have alpha values.   If a player's gun (and arms) were to suddenly fade away after switching weapons, would the player care?  Probably not.  Would the user still know which weapon is equipped?  Probably.  The player might even feel relieved that anywhere up to half of his/her screen was cleared up.  While equipped, the gun might be rendered at full (100%) alpha, slowly changing to about 25% alpha after fully equipped.  As the player aims down the ironsight of the gun, the alpha further reduces to an ever lower 5% alpha.  Furthermore, the three levels of translucency can be made public, so players can modify them as they please.  By camouflaging the player’s gun and arm, the designer frees up the majority of the screen; that way if something suspicious shows through the gun, the player will be alerted.  Another advantage to this system is that, since guns recoil upwards, the enemy is never fully masked by the barrel of the gun.  This means the player will always be able to see the enemy at which (s)he is aiming.  An interesting byproduct of gun translucency is the visibility of the gun’s inner workings (all of which can be animated), making the gun look like a dynamic object as it ejects cartridges rather than black box.  This opens up a new level of gun aesthetics unseen (as far as I know) to this day.  The idea behind minimalism is to subtract the elements the player doesn't need to see.  Changing gun alphas does exactly that.

A final note, the enemy should be able to see any gun at 100% alpha, so that (s)he can respond adequately to counter any weapon choice.

A gun at 25% alpha


Throughout my years playing first-person shooters, I have loved every moment of looking at the minimap and the flickering red dots that appear on it.  I do feel, however, that minimaps are becoming obsolete with games like Portal 2 and Brink adding through-wall object visibility.  The next evolution of the minimap could very well be the silhouette, where players are revealed through walls when they fire their gun.  One way to reveal objects through walls is shaders.  I am currently using this silhouette shader in Unity3D.  After creating a silhouette shader, the next step is to rig it up to switch with a default shader when an enemy is firing.  The traditional color for an enemy silhouette is red (following after the red dot on minimaps), whereas teammates might be shown in blue.  The two main advantages of silhouettes are 1) greater, more intuitive perception of depth and 2) perception of altitude.  The combination of these advantages makes public matches more user-friendly against clans, who are very well coordinated, often with the help of voice chat.  After all, supplying silhouettes is almost as good as voice communication, if not better, because the player knows exactly where the enemy is for a brief timestamp.  Despite all of this work, the minimap still holds one major advantage over silhouettes: its 360 degree field of view.  Players tend to turn when they hear gunfire behind them, though, so this problem is partially diminished.  If absolutely necessary, arrows can be used to indicate the direction of silhouetted enemies.  Regardless, the player is free of one major HUD utility, the minimap, without any major loss of efficiency in battle.

A player's silhouette through a brick wall.

Player Health

While I am not a fan of slippery slope (that is punishing the player for getting behind); in this one case I make an exception.  Based on the player's health, all light source intensities in game are multiplied by somewhere between 0 and 1, where 0 is dead and 1 is full health.  This means that when a player is nearly dead, his screen will appear to be black, and when he is alive and kicking, all lighting will appear as intended.  While blacking out while dying might become frustrating, it does make lucky recoveries all the more adrenal.  Furthermore, after dying, the player is generally shown a black screen for at least a few frames.  Lower light intensities offer an effective transition between the gameworld lighting and black screens.  Meanwhile, the player can always tell when (s)he is taking damage.  Regardless, the player doesn't need to watch a healthbar to know that they are taking damage, the darkening screen effectively communicates a threat's urgency.

Enemy and Ally Health

My solution for enemy health will likely be the hardest to program out of the immersion methods I offer.  The visual is relatively straightforward: as the enemy takes damage, his/her body fills with blood from toe to head (superimposed on player graphics).  When blood gets to the enemy’s head, that enemy dies.  I (aptly) call it blood thermometer aka human healthbar.  I have talked before about three-dimensional health, where health has a position (the level of blood), velocity (velocities moving towards the toes are regeneration, velocities moving towards the head are degeneration), and acceleration, which seeks to normalize the velocity so it moves towards the toes.  Both teams end up the same color after successive bullets: red.  Furthermore, silhouettes (red and blue) can be shown with purple blood.  Likely, my method for creating blood thermometer will involve a custom-made shader.  Blood thermometer helps the player better prioritize kills without having healthbars following each player in-game.  Damaged players will appear in red, and mouse cursors will rush towards them like bulls, since red tends to catch the eye.  This display will most likely improve battle efficiency and give the game a trademark style.

Blood thermometer on a capsule. This capsule has taken a significant amount of damage. 

(Try to imagine a human filling with blood, not a capsule.)


This article has provoked me to disagree with the notion that all shooter require reloading.  Particularly because I have included silhouettes, I feel players are adequately punished for shooting.  Rate of fire (or fire interval) aside, guns do not require reloading.  While your average player isn't frustrated by reloading, I still believe players would be happier without it.  I envision ammo as a chain of bullets that exits the sleeve of the player’s suit, lines the arm, and is directly fed into the gun, whereupon it doubles back along the arm into the suit.  When the player fires, the chain moves like a tread along the arm.  This eliminates the "ammo remaining in clip" part of the HUD, since there is no longer a clip, just a chain.  This means the player can focus less on ammo and more on shooting, which I believe will exponentially help player immersion, as it minimalistically cuts both reloading and a HUD element with one fell swoop.


My plan for bullets, à la lore, is to have ammo in unlimited supply through nanobots constantly rebuilding the chain from scrap metal and gunpowder on the battlefield.  Again, my hope is to focus more on gunplay rather than punishing players for running out of ammo.  Punishing players for running out of ammo seems rather counter-intuitive, for players who use more ammo in a life tend to get more kills.  By removing total ammo, I eliminate the "ammo remaining" segment of the HUD and again emphasize gunplay over smart use of ammo.  After all, shooting is already punished by silhouettes.

Add all of this together and the only displays still seen on the HUD are grenades, miscellaneous, recharging meters, score, and stance (standing, crouching, prone).  Some of these could be subtracted through creative solutions, others might be necessary.  Regardless, if, at the end of the day, the player still wants this info on the HUD, give it to them.  Just try to make sure its 100% redundant.

In case you are interested in what I do, you can watch my 1.5 minute video from a month earlier here, the 4 minute video showcasing these features (and a few more) here, or follow me on twitter @MattDWNY.

Feel free to comment below. 

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Michael Stevens
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If the health and "recently fired" silhouettes are too similar your players will have trouble differentiating between an injured enemy on the near side of a wall and an aggressive enemy on the opposite side.

And having both in place at the same time could be really visually confusing if an enemy is partially in cover or the player turns a corner.

Matthew Downey
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You raise a very good point. I think I'll end up taking the blood thermometer effect off of allies.

The overlap problem will be there no matter what I do (unless I take out either silhouettes or blood thermometer), but it shouldn't appear for more than a few milliseconds around corners and it shouldn't be that confusing when enemies are using cover (at least I hope).

Eric Schwarz
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I think these are all interesting ideas, but I'm not sure I agree that they are fundamentally better than existing ones or make for better gameplay.

First off, the idea of getting rid of the minimap and replacing it with silhouettes may satisfy a functional equivalent, but if anything, I think it does it too well. With a minimap, there is uncertainty in its accuracy (modified by the time it takes the player to reach the spot), and in using silhouettes, you're getting rid of that ambiguity. Depending on your design goals, this could be a good or a terrible idea. Personally I've never been a fan of minimaps displaying players' exact positions the moment they expose themselves (I feel that spotting targets, as in Battlefield, is a better solution), and I think that having to actually hunt for your enemies is a lot more engaging - otherwise you turn the shooter into a mere test of accuracy and reflexes, rather than intuition, experience and understanding of levels, and so on.

Weapon models are something that I think players enjoy because they add a sense of weight and movement to what is effectively just a camera flying around a level. Whether or not they obscure a lot of screen space, I think that there's an appeal in feeling like you're holding a weapon - and things like visual kickback and reload animations give a nice approximation of recoil and a better understanding of how long it can take to load up. Ultimately I think that having a "small weapons" or "no weapons" option, as in Unreal Tournament 2004, is the best bet for giving players the best of both worlds - I don't think a designer should be making such subjective decisions about user interface for the player. If it can reasonably be customizable, then make it so.

As for the immersion argument, I disagree wholeheartedly that a lack of HUD contributes to immersion. Being immersed is all about involvement in a game, not about whether or not you feel you are "in" the game world or not. See my recent post here for a few scattered thoughts on that:

Matthew Downey
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I believe that removing HUD elements will immerse the player more (to the extent of the law of diminishing returns) as long as players are not getting any more frustrated by the game.

One point I like in your article is the one that regards weapon stats in Call of Duty. I think players should make informed game decisions. I personally believe games with multiplayer should include Denkirson-style weapon stats:

I believe that, if user-interface will help the player, give it to them. It is possible to make a game where HUD wouldn't help the player, that is what I'm pushing for. What I'm doing is adding some stylistic features that may reduce HUD-size and, yes, make the game focus more on accuracy and reflexes (aim skill) because silhouettes are so accurate.

Personally I love shooters for movement skill not aim skill, so making aim skill more desirable isn't on the top of my list. However, I believe movement skill is determined by the map, and skilled flankers will still be nearly as effective, especially since silhouettes can only be seen if they are within the field of view and a lot of players will still run around with tunnel vision.

I probably shouldn't use words like obsolete, because no matter what we'll continue seeing HUD elements, but they might be used less.

Cory Pendergraft
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I'm not so sure I like the transparent weapon idea for different reasons. I think that a weapon with an alpha value is more of an immersion-breaker than just having the weapon hanging out on the screen all the time. That said, I've never seen anyone carry a weapon like your typical FPS character does; they either carry it at the hip, with the barrel pointing at the ground, or they're looking down the sights, more like what a Gears of War character does. Maybe the character could actually lower the weapon after switching instead of it just fading out, then raise the weapon when they actually fire it?

I do agree with your point about the game feeling like a floating camera without the gun being shown. Something would have to replace the gun to add visual interest; allowing the player to see the character's actual body (chest, legs, arms, the gun being carried, everything) when they look down could help with that.

Hakim Boukellif
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I think that going too far with reducing the HUD to as little as possible can actually wreck immersion rather than improve it.

Because games have limited means of conveying information (usually just visuals, sound and, uh, hand vibrations) and even with the means it does have it has limited detail, some information, like player health, can only be conveyed in an abstract way. Usually this information is displayed as part of some kind of HUD, and the good thing about that is, is that you can mentally separate it from the world the game is depicting. It's linked to the world you're seeing, but it's not part of it, so you can just treat it like a separate source of information that you can absorb without thinking. It's comparable with watching a foreign movie with subtitles; you're not actually paying attention to the subtitles, but the information they carry enters your brain regardless, not as text, but as dialogue.

On the other hand, if the depiction of this kind of information is integrated too much into the depiction of the game world, then the two are no longer separable. As a result, you're constantly being made aware of the abstraction that's being made, breaking immersion.

Martin Juranek
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These ideas does not create imersive game, they create twitch shooter with world abstracted away.

By removing reload/ammo, you take away from world.