Gamasutra: The Art & Business of Making Gamesspacer
View All     RSS
October 24, 2014
arrowPress Releases
October 24, 2014
PR Newswire
View All

If you enjoy reading this site, you might also want to check out these UBM Tech sites:

Opinion: On Progression In Games
Opinion: On Progression In Games
October 16, 2008 | By Andrew Doull

October 16, 2008 | By Andrew Doull
More: Console/PC

[In this opinion piece, game designer and commentator Andrew Doull looks at how games progress, both in terms of player and character advancement, noting that the grind can be "the crutch of a lazy designer", but there are also ways to use it intelligently.]

MTV News' Stephen Totilo recently argued that the defining characteristic of role-playing games is playing a role; and by that definition, included LittleBigPlanet, Guitar Hero and Spore as great role-playing games he had played recently.

I am forced to disagree with Stephen's definition: while semantically correct, he is disingenuously expanding the computer genre to encompass most, if not all games. With the exception of the Eye Toy and 'Brain Training' style self-improvement games, the player is forced to interact with the game through the proxy of an in-game avatar or character. What defines a computer RPG is progression - and at the same time, there is nothing more greatly abused in RPG design.

The grind, the treadmill, leveling up, mudflation, scaling difficulty of opponents, are all tropes of RPG progression. As you can tell from the negative connotations of many of those phrases, few concepts have had more loathing heaped upon them, particularly in the MMORPG space. Progression, in the worst sense, can be the crutch of a lazy designer. Progress Quest typifies the ever escalating scale of identikit enemies and equipment, in which no distinction is attached to the ever increasing numbers.

But the RPG progression is powerfully compulsive and increasingly adopted by other games: achievements feature increasingly in other genres such as first person shooters, unlocking additional weapons, equipment and game types.

What Is Progression In Games?

What do I mean by progression? There are at least two distinct types of progression in computer games, which I’ll label player progression, and character progression (narrative progression is arguably a third). Player progression is the increasing aptitude of the player in mastering the game: whether through learning and understanding the technical rules of the game (surface play) or the implications of those rules (deep play).

Such progression can also be seen via better control over interaction with the game (hand-eye coordination, clicks per second) or rote memorization of in-game patterns (short term and long term memory). Player progression, while a fascinating topic in its own right involving human computer interaction, theory of game design and psychology, is not the focus of this article – instead, the poorer and often abused step-child character progression, is the intended target.

Character progression is the unlocking of additional rules of play, or altering the existing rules, by choices or actions within the game. The most common unlock is the ability: an additional in-game interaction that the player’s avatar can choose to do. But scaling upwards existing abilities is just as common in the RPG space. And sometimes, particular once the whole set of game abilities has been unlocked, or at the conclusion of the game prologue, abilities can be removed – usually through the convention of capturing the character, or having them narrowly avoiding death.

Bound up with the concept of progression, particularly in the RPG space, is choice. As the character progresses through the game, the player may be given the opportunity to choose which of several abilities to unlock or scale up. A fascinating alternative suggested on the Usenet group would be to create a game featuring inverted progression: where the player is forced to choose which of a starting complement of abilities to lose as they move forward in the game.

The difficulty with choice is that it makes the game design harder, as the designer is forced to provide alternate solutions or balance game-play for each choice or combination of choices that the player has made for their character’s progression. This can be mitigated by ensuring that the different choices have limited or no real consequences to game-play, simply coloring the in-game aesthetic, but this trade off can make the choices less interesting to the player.

Spore has received much criticism for this decision: while the many in-game design tools allow a fascinating array of different creatures and objects to be created, the vast majority of creative differences have no impact on game-play. Only the mouth part, which dictates whether the creature is a herbivore, carnivore or omnivore, and a limited set of abilities in the creature phase provide real customization options.

Progression With Character!

Character progression can be neatly tied into player progression through the tutorial phase of the game. In this phase, the player is only given a limited subset of the total game abilities, and has to demonstrate mastery of these abilities before unlocking more. The tutorial phase extends until the full set of abilities is mastered: at which point the ‘real’ game begins.

The difficulty with the tutorial phase is that is implies a linear progression of abilities which does not sit easily alongside the choice component of game progression. The tutorial is usually gated, in the sense that the player cannot progress until mastering the ability, which may be outside their game play aptitude – leading to frustration at the tutorial element. And the pacing of the game may be affected, particularly if the tutorials have to be interleaved with the larger game play.

The Zelda series of games are good examples of mixing tutorials and game play elements: it is possible to explore the overworld at almost any stage, but mastering of abilities gained at specific times is required to unlock dungeons which further test these abilities. The whole game design supports this character progression – it may not be appropriate for genres such as real time strategy games or first person shooters, where mixing intense action and tutorials may result in game play pacing problems.

If the elements of the tutorial are interesting enough to be expanded to a full game, it is possible to control character progression through introducing new abilities in later game levels or higher difficulty levels. This divides the game play up into sub-games, each of which is of increasing complexity; allowing the player to master simpler strategies before moving onto the later levels.

Darwinia features this progression technique through each of its levels; and many Real Time Strategy games take this approach in their single player campaigns. The difficulty is to ensure that abilities introduced early are still relevant later in the game, and that the game is still interesting even with the more limited ability sets: otherwise levels will end up with a mismatched difficulty or under utilization of skills learned earlier in the game.

Abilities can be also unlocked once a player has mastered a particular section of the game, to make re-traversing the section less of a challenge. The early 2D Metal Gear Solid games featured this, where an initially unarmed Snake would be forced to evade guards using stealth, but after equipping himself with weapons later in the game, he could shoot his way through the same screens far more quickly.

Item-Actuated Progression?

This is not just limited to geographic traversal: if a player in Resident Evil 4 has difficulty with a particular boss monster, they can purchase a one shot rocket launcher at considerable cost to bypass the monster in question, and in Spore the initial difficulty of fighting enemies in the Space phase is much easier once the player has acquired higher level weapons, made available by defending sufficient attacks at the more difficult early stage of the phase.

The acquirement of abilities can either be directly linked to actions within the game, which results in a puzzle-like structure to game play, where certain prerequisites have to be met in order to open up or make easier later parts of the game, or indirectly, by providing a resource that the player can then spend on abilities directly or indirectly. Classes, talent trees and skills are all mechanisms for controlling character progression in various ways and guiding player choices as to which abilities to acquire or improve.

The class structure is the most limiting framework, where the player makes a single decision, usually at the start of the game, that fundamentally colors the game experience. Talent trees and skills allow smaller, incremental choices to be made - the difference between the two being a matter of degree rather than kind, where talent trees implies a few, spaced out decisions as to which abilities to acquire, and skills implies a more frequent investment of time into the decision making process, with abilities improving on a scalar basis with the occasional break point which introduces a new ability or opens up a new skill.

Divorcing the ability acquirement structure from the game simplifies the design requirements: you are no longer forced to ensure that the parts of the game where an ability is required fall after the parts of the game where that ability is acquired. However, the mechanic for acquiring new abilities becomes more important, and here it is very easy to end up in a position where the mechanism (experience points, money, power ups) is available without bounds in a region, even if a fraction of what is available later in the game.

It then becomes possible for the player to continue to acquire new abilities in a low risk environment by trading off time instead of playing skill: in other words, to grind or farm the game. This implies that you should put a ceiling on the acquisition resource, and regularly change it as the player moves through the game and masters sets of abilities ('Your dubloons are worthless here, you need McGuffins to buy things this side of town').

Spore's achievement system implicitly does this by making the rewards for defending planets different to the rewards for terraforming them: and each reward set makes the particular task that contributed towards it much easier in future. It is easy to visualize a game of tiered abilities where each new tier requires a new resource and only a limited number of the possible abilities can be learned per tier.

Why Do We Hand Out Awards?

But none of this answers why, as designers, we feel the need to reward the player with new abilities moving forward in the game: particularly when those abilities make parts of the game easier or irrelevant. Is the progression of player skill and narrative not sufficient to inspire the player to keep playing the game? Does the game lack depth or complexity that we should trivialize it by making the game easier and easier, as opposed to harder and harder, the more the player plays it?

Or are the rewards we give purely cosmetic, the enemies scaling up as fast as the player does, so that the same sword swing at level 50, despite the gleaming blade, and cacophonous impact, change the world in only the same way that the timid stab of a level 1 character against a giant rat does?

To an extent, we are making the game more complicated, by providing more choices through progression. But when the range of choices are mastered by improved player understanding, is game progression a dressed up Skinner box? I think, and unfortunately many games shy from this, that progression must mean that the stakes are higher as well. You must risk more when you fail, which is why permadeath in roguelikes is such a powerful solution to the progression dilemma.

Of the classic games, Chess and Go don't feature progression in the sense that RPGs do: the one to come closest is Poker, where your stake is built up as you play the game, and those at the table around you withdraw. In the final hands, if you manage to stay at the table, the money you have staked is the highest, the rewards the greatest and the failures the most painful. Mat Williams compares Tilted Mill's new PC title Hinterland to Poker, and although he doesn't say directly, he must have been conscious of this acquisition strategy and how risking all is the direct counter to progression's woes.

[NOTE: Andrew Doull is the creator of Unangband, a rogue-like game, and blogs at Ascii Dreams. Although this piece reads as a standalone article, it is part of his larger series on 'Designing a Magic System', which you may wish to read after finishing this.]

Related Jobs

Activision Publishing
Activision Publishing — Santa Monica, California, United States

Tools Programmer-Central Team
Crystal Dynamics
Crystal Dynamics — Redwood City, California, United States

Senior/Lead VFX Artist
Magic Leap, Inc.
Magic Leap, Inc. — Wellington, New Zealand

Level Designer
Magic Leap, Inc.
Magic Leap, Inc. — Wellington, New Zealand

Lead Game Designer


Bart Stewart
profile image
Two quick points:

1. I agree that Stephen Totilo is wrong to extend the description of "roleplaying game" to pretty much any game. IMO he's going there by choosing to interpret the word "role" to mean "function," when it's more correct to interpret the word "role" from the context of acting: a person on a stage playing the role of "Maggie the Cat," for example.

In this light, roles aren't generic -- they're character-based. A game that lets you pretend to be "a guitar player" is not an RPG, but a game that lets you pretend to be Eddie Van Halen on tour could be, epsecially if the gameplay experience of playing Eddie Van Halen would be different from the experience of playing Steve Howe or Michael Hedges or Pete Townshend. In other words, a true RPG enables people to pretend to be specific characters existing and acting within a secondary universe.

2. My second point is that this definition given above is sufficient. I disagree that progression (by character or player, but character progression in particular) is necessary for a game to be a true RPG.

As an example, consider Traveller -- not a MMORPG or CRPG, but definitely an RPG, and a successful one. You'd use the wonderfully detailed character creator to grow your character from age 18 on up, generating attributes and skills each "year." And when you're done with that... you go play. No grinding, no farming, no waiting to "level up" for weeks or months through some arbitrary power enhancement sequence so you can get to the "end-game" -- Traveller is ALL end-game. It's possible to "progress" in Traveller by picking up more useful items over time, but that's never been the focus; Traveller has no gameplay rules defining how this process may occur.

And yet no one has ever seriously suggested that Traveller is not a true roleplaying game. And that's because the key to the "roleplaying game" definition isn't character advancement; it's playing the role of a specific character in a secondary universe as though that character (and that universe) actually exists.

This distinction matters because MMORPG designers will continue to unnecessarily gimp themselves and their potential subscribers until they shed this belief that character advancement is a requirement for a game to be an RPG. Certainly it's something that's convenient as a time-sink mode of gameplay; absolutely it's a design that a lot of gamers have gotten used to; definitely there are gamers who are convinced that character advancement is a requirement for any MMORPG.

But game designers are supposed to be the people who look beyond the conventional wisdom to come up with novel forms of entertainment. We need game designers to push back against the money people who (properly) want to minimize risk by only doing what seems to have worked in the past.

At one time, everything was new and untried... until someone tried it. Right now MMORPG designers need to try the Traveller approach of deep-sixing the whole "character advancement" thing entirely as conventional wisdom that's ready to be challenged.

It might not work. Too many gamers may now have bought into the false belief that every MMORPG has to have character advancement.

But what if a MMORPG without character advancement does work, and you're the only one offering it?

Chee Ming Tan
profile image
I have not played Traveller before but from what you have described, Traveller simply has a very short span of character development as compared to other games. The act of generating attributes and skills is character development, or in this article's context, character progression; although it doesn't adopt the normal 'leveling' method.

I agree with you that character progression is not a must in RPG but I see it a plus and is important for most RPG and MMORPG. If you throw a bunch of players with a set of skills and pre-defined attributes right into 'endgame' in an open-ended MMORPG, there is a high chance that they will not know what to do or where to go.

Laurie Cheers
profile image
I think it's clear that Stephen Totilo, and the commenters above, are hung up too much on the term "Role-playing game".

The RPG genre got its name because the games were copies of Dungeons and Dragons - which (in its paper form) is certainly a role-playing game in any sense of the word.

The computer versions of role-playing games have never really featured any roleplaying. Don't get all uppity about it - this doesn't make them bad games, just badly named.

Unfortunately the name is pretty hard to change at this point, so if this bothers you, just pretend that RPG is an abbreviation of Rigid Progression Game and get on with your life.

Phil OConnor
profile image
Others have already pointed this out but the author's definition of what is an RPG is incorrect:

"What defines a computer RPG is progression - and at the same time, there is nothing more greatly abused in RPG design" -

The definition of Role Playing Game is the player is playing a role of a ficticious Character that represents the player,and that the player created using a system for character generation. By definition the game is designed to be an arena for any number of characters generated using this system.

Andy Stennett
profile image
I'm not sure I entirely agree with Laurie Cheers' opinion that computer RPGs don't have any role-playing in them. In fact I'm kind of at a a loss to understand why the arguement at all. The kind of character progression mentioned in the article has been around for a while in single player games, but I'm not sure it is a necessity for the MMORPG style because character and human progression go hand in hand. Which is to say that as time goes on you and your opponents become more adept at playing the game so it becomes harder as a result. As far as I am aware, Eve Online, WoW, Rhunescape et al all have levels in them whereby weapons or other resources are unlocked, and so an advantage is gained. In Astronest (yes I know it was a strategy game), you generally only fought battles with those on a similar to or slightly above your own level. So in order to progress you took on challenges from better players. I'm not too au fait with MMORPGs but that would seem to be one solution, if indeed a problem exists at all.

Mark Rebane
profile image
Stephen Totilo's definition seems far too broad for computer games, however it seems a suitable for paper-and-dice RPGs. I think what we have to realise is that using the same definition for CRPGs doesn't make sense because technology changes the way that people view the games they play—the digital divide. Many computer game genres have taken advantage of the freedoms inherent in computer games to enhance the immersion for players. However, if you label every game where the player plays the role of character as a CRPG, all of sudden, almost every FPS game is absorbed in to the CRPG genre, even with a non-greedy interpretation of the definition.

Phil, your definition of a CRPG includes a technology feature that is not included in quite a few games traditionally classified as CRPGs. That is, the ability to "generate any number of characters using [a] system" is a feature of some games, but it is not a core genre characteristic. Take, for example, the game Chrono Trigger... the characters are rigidly defined by the designers, the player does have minor choices in the direction of character progression (the order that they develop their tech), but they cannot create their own characters. Furthermore, this definition only allows for a single character to represent the player, what about the many CRPGs where the player controls a party of characters? The Final Fantasy series has always had such a structure.

When looking for a definition for any genre, the goal I think, is to describe the core gameplay mechanic that is common to all games in that genre. In the case of CRPGs, this is a complex task and at surface value, a definition seems like it might amount to the union of various game mechanics. However, allow me to attempt to offer my own 5c definition:

A CRPG is a computer game in which the player assumes the role of one or more characters usually in an epic fantasy or sci-fi world and uses a rule-set often based in statistical probability, mathematical formulae, and data structures (e.g. tree / digraph) to represent a fundamentally core character progression component. Furthermore, CRPGs entertain a complex arrangement of quests and sub-quests that provide the player with story arcs which may have affects extending either regionally or globally that may be reflected in the fictional world as a whole to amplify or maintain coherence with the primary story arc.

Jere Keltamaki
profile image
"What do I mean by progression? There are at least two distinct types of progression in computer games, which I’ll label player progression, and character progression (narrative progression is arguably a third). Player progression is the increasing aptitude of the player in mastering the game: whether through learning and understanding the technical rules of the game (surface play) or the implications of those rules (deep play)."


I am currently in the process of doing research for my Master's Thesis on Player Progression in games and I was just wondering what do you exactly mean with surface play and deep play? Can you perhaps direct me to some material that has more information on these concepts? That would be much appreciated:)