Gamasutra: The Art & Business of Making Gamesspacer
Deathmatch Map Design: The Architecture of Flow
View All     RSS
October 24, 2014
arrowPress Releases
October 24, 2014
PR Newswire
View All

If you enjoy reading this site, you might also want to check out these UBM Tech sites:

Deathmatch Map Design: The Architecture of Flow

June 26, 2013 Article Start Previous Page 2 of 3 Next

It's on paper that the flow of a map emerges. Flow. Halo 4's designers describe it as an invisible force continually impelling the player onward, and it's a word that recurs again and again in conversation with them. "We tend to describe things based on the idea that the player is a camera, and what the camera sees and what the camera can perceive just running forward without any additional information lets you know where you're able to go," says Pearson.

A map that flows enables players to make intuitive split-second decisions about their preferred route, he explains. "There should be no point where you're forced to do a 180 degree turn to see something to know that you need to go there. Everything needs to be presented to you as you move through the level."

In many ways, flow can be thought of as an absence of frustration on the part of the player, at least so far as geography is concerned. Jumpable gaps are a case in point. "Any time you have a gap, the distances between where you jump from and the other side are either so close that you know you can make it and you recognize that as a route and a place you can flow into, or they're so far apart that you never make the mistake of trying to get somewhere where you can't reach even though it looks like you should be able to."

A million and one factors influence flow, many of them minuscule. As anyone who has spawned at the back of a squad of teammates can attest, even the direction a player faces when she spawns greatly influences where she will go (i.e. almost always forwards, in an almost trance-like state.)

The location of desirable power-weapons and vehicles, which can tip a battle in favor of the player who commands them, inevitably exert a gravitational pull upon gamers. In a thoughtful concession to new players, Halo 4 highlights such items with superimposed markers so that their locations no longer have to be learned through experience.

The flow of play and players on a map will not become evident until testing, which begins as soon as a basic 3D model is roughed or "blocked" out, and continues as the design iterates. To build the 3D maps, Halo developers use proprietary tools developed in-house.

Respawn's Geoff Smith cut teeth designing community maps for Counter-Strike using the Valve Hammer Editor (known as Worldcraft at the time). He made a name for himself with the map De_Karachi01, a map that ultimately launched his map-design career. He would later rebuild it as Karachi for Modern Warfare 2 using Call of Duty mod tool Radiant, a spin-off of id's GNU-licensed GtkRadiant level design tool. "I usually have a pretty clear layout idea before I start using an editor," he says, "even if that layout isn't perfect from the start (they never are)."

"I try to get a level playable as soon as possible. Multiplayer layouts need hours and hours of playtime to make adjustments to make sure the map plays well," he adds. "So there is no time to waste theorizing about how it will play; you just need to get on with it."

Ask designers if there are any metrics they track when developing and testing, it quickly becomes apparent that the initial approach is softer and more intuitive than that. "Early on I am looking for the distances at which people meet: where they stop to shoot at other players and if they can even find each other," says Smith.

Halo 4

Similarly, Halo 4's designers keep a watchful eye on distance. "We definitely have standards for the size than something can be and the time it takes from one corner of a map to the other, or one objective sight to the other," says Pearson. "It's to make sure we're tuning the experience to keep the time-to-death down, or making sure that your time-to-engagement is enough to give you a breather between dying, but not so long that you're hunting through the map and not finding people." Again, game mechanics have a direct bearing. In Halo 3, sprinting was impossible. In Halo: Reach, sprinting was a selectable armor ability. In Halo 4, everyone's at it, and the maps have grown to compensate.

Fundamentally, though, 343 and Certain Affinity simply want to know if maps are fun or not. "Honestly, initially, there aren't a lot of performance metrics we're really looking for," says Clopper. "It's very hard to describe, but when you're in a play-test room and people are moving around a map and having an amazing time there's a sense of fun you can feel in the room. People are yelling, people are having a great time. They're shooting their coworkers. These amazing battles are happening, and that's the great thing about Halo: crazy stuff can happen with the physics."

Further into the development process, Halo 4's developers adopt a more measured approach. "You tend to use the metrics based on playtests to refine the map and define the areas that might have been weaker into more powerful positions," says Pearson. "You never want to have a map that has dead ends or areas of the map that go unutilized, because then it's wasted space and it's not worth the effort of creation. Those tend to get whittled down and worked out so that you start prioritizing areas that get less play to make them just as usable and just as versatile."

Article Start Previous Page 2 of 3 Next

Related Jobs

Next Games
Next Games — Helsinki, Finland

Senior Level Designer
Magic Leap, Inc.
Magic Leap, Inc. — Wellington, New Zealand

Level Designer
DeNA Studios Canada
DeNA Studios Canada — Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Analytical Game Designer
University of Texas at Dallas
University of Texas at Dallas — Richardson, Texas, United States

Assistant/Associate Prof of Game Studies


Michael Kolb
profile image
Great article, thanks for the tips and as a veteran Halo player yeah flow is everything. I've played other games online and their flow was segmented by running around the map trying to find people. I enjoy Far Cry 3's online matches but sometimes I run into this encounter. That can be said with Battlefield 3 as well but that's one thing these guys didn't talk about, the number of players on a map. With this variable your experience varies significantly. Someone should make multiple versions of a map based on how many people are playing it at a time. Battlefield 3 had some close quarters maps in their DLC which were just previous maps shortened and tweaked for that experience.

scott anderson
profile image
"designed multiplayer maps for the studio's Call of Duty series, up to 2002's Modern Warfare 2."

Don't you mean 2009?

Christian Philippe Guay
profile image
That's a pretty good and very informative article on level design. I'm sure a lot of people will enjoy it.

However, the article doesn't really talk about how the quality of the gameplay can affect the overall quality of the level design. There is a reason why to this day, Quake Live still is one of those classic games in which the quality of the maps were on par with the quality of the gameplay.

Michael Stevens
profile image
I really enjoyed this. I'm really looking forward to seeing what the variations in player size and mobility mean for the level design in Titanfall. What they've shown off so far had a lot more verticality than we're used to and I hope that leads to new sorts of objectives.

While I think the actual shooting has improved year over year with COD, a lot of character has evaporated from the maps since MW2. BO2 in particular is very symmetrical and there are a lot fewer "moments" in each map. Players who do callouts seem more likely to relate their position to Domination flags than visual landmarks now. It's gone from a couple lived-in, interconnected sets to a more general backdrop that focuses in on shooting and spawning rhythms. That's a good thing for vanilla modes like TDM, but it just ruins Search and Destroy for me.