Gamasutra: The Art & Business of Making Gamesspacer
View All     RSS
August 20, 2014
arrowPress Releases
August 20, 2014
PR Newswire
View All

If you enjoy reading this site, you might also want to check out these UBM Tech sites:

At retail, the big games are still selling (even if nothing else is)
At retail, the big games are still selling (even if nothing else is) Exclusive
October 15, 2012 | By Matt Matthews

October 15, 2012 | By Matt Matthews
More: Console/PC, Social/Online, Business/Marketing, Exclusive

Measured in terms of software dollars, September has historically been the middle of the retail software year. In fact, last year 51 percent of all software revenue was generated prior to the first week in October. If the same is true this year, then the headlines we'll be reading in January 2013 can be written right now: Retail video game industry at lowest level in seven years.

But, as long-time readers of this column and industry veterans well know, those kinds of headlines don't tell the full story. That one qualifier -- retail -- means that a significant segment of the video game industry's revenue, the revenue that comes from digital sales, is not being counted. Do those digital revenues make up for the losses at retail? No, they don't. But, those revenues are higher margin and could mean that the business is more profitable, but that's often a detail that gets missed.

And, to add yet another wrinkle to the current situation, big games at retail are still big. I know it sounds like a tautology, but in this case I'm referring to a refinement of an idea I discussed earlier this year: the middle of the market has fallen out and that's left the market ripe for top-tier releases.

It sounds like a lot of bad news, but I think it's more subtle than that. There is still a lot of money to be made, but you have to be the right kind of game in this late-generation market.

Let's start back at the beginning, when I said that retail will be the smallest this year since 2005. Here's a simple diagram that shows just where we have been and where we are right now.

Since the beginning of this console generation, the January through September period has represented between 51 and 55 percent of the total retail software revenue in each year. If we apply that approximate rule of thumb to the current year, say by assuming that the first nine months will eventually be 52 percent of the full year's retail software revenue, then we end up with a total of around $6.2 billion for the year.

That would represent a shocking 29 percent year-over-year decline from 2011. However, that does not take into account the moderation of the market of late. As I tried to argue a few weeks ago, the market is still contracting, but contracting at a slower rate. (In calculus terms, I would say the second derivative of revenue has turned positive while the first derivative remains negative.)

If I'm right, then the last three months will still show negative growth, but the full year won't be down a full 29 percent. That means that the last three months of the year will probably represent even more than half the revenue in 2012, and the middle of the retail year will have shifted out of September (for the first time this generation) and into October.

In short, the industry will be even more dependent on the holiday season than it has been in recent memory. Instead of spreading out revenue throughout the year, as has been suggested previously, the industry's revenues are going the opposite way.

Among those who have made the transition to a digital world, the natural expectation is that even if retail revenues are down then digital revenues will help make up the slack. (I count myself among those who have made the shift personally. Our household purchased both LEGO Batman 2 and Borderlands 2 digitally.)

Unfortunately, there still isn't enough data about the digital industry which I believe is as reliable as the NPD Group's retail tracking data. Whereas the NPD Group now gets reports from over 90 percent of the retail market for video games, their coverage of the digital market seems much more tenuous to me.

Let's assume their estimates for digital revenues reflect some part of reality, even if it's not as precise as we might like. What do those estimates show?

Even with the inclusion of all content sales estimates from full digital games, DLC, social games, used game resale, and game rentals the entire content industry is down right around 10 percent for the year. That's a far cry from the 27 percent contraction of retail software, but it does make the point that while retail contracts the hole isn't being completely filled by the other sources.

Moreover, until the NPD Group reports segmented data on these ex-retail sources more regularly, we can't assess how much of this data is just from digital sales. They have reported enough information this year that we can begin to separate physical rental and used game resales from the digital market revenues, but I don't have that kind of data for 2011.

And, I should add, they have cautioned against relying too much on data in previous public statements, presumably because they are refining their modeling and estimates as they get more data.

Regardless, I think the broad outlines are clear: digital isn't growing enough to stem all the losses at retail.

All is not lost, and that's the silver lining I see in September's sales. Yes, the whole market is way down, but some games really are making very good money. Let me show you a graph that I think highlights this trend, and puts the September successes in context.

When Piper Jaffray's Michael Olson and his colleagues published their Teen Video Game Fall 2012 Survey results last week, they included a the graph above. The revenue is contracting very slowly for games in the top 20 during the holiday period each year, roughly from October to January according to a conversation with one of the authors. However, titles outside that top 20 are seeing their holiday revenue decline by a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of approximately 11 percent.

I think this picture fits nicely with the idea that the middle market is disappearing. Consider games like Sleeping Dogs and Darksiders II, each of which sold under 300,000 units in August and then disappeared from the top 10 by September. These middle-tier titles fall by the wayside when they don't get the first-class promotions of titles like New Super Mario Bros. 2, which is now over 500,000 units in its second month on a platform with fewer than 6 million owners.

Or take the case of Borderlands 2, which got first-class treatment from its publisher and a tremendous amount of press attention based on the break-out success of the original game. It sold exceptionally well with a reported 1.48 million units in its first month, a 234 percent increase over the first month for the original Borderlands in October 2009.

Games like Madden NFL 13 and NBA 2K13 which have annually renewed demand, strong reputations among consumers, and little competition are guaranteed to rise to the top. The figure below puts Madden NFL 13's strong showing last month in historical context.

This trend bodes well for games like Halo 4 and Call of Duty: Black Ops II, which can command attention from consumers. However, I think it likely that other titles, like say XCOM: Enemy Unknown, are on the edge and at risk of being overlooked by gamers who appear to have become more discerning with the money they're spending on games.

As Andrew Connor of Piper Jaffray put it to me in a recent conversation: "It looks like in general gamers are spending more judiciously. Certainly this is always a dynamic of the video game retail market. People don't want to buy lousy games, but statistically it appears to be more pronounced at this final stage of the [current hardware] cycle."

Wedbush Securities analyst Michael Pachter recently commented that publishers look to launch new properties alongside new hardware (like the Nintendo's Wii U and the expected hardware updates from Microsoft and Sony next year) and I followed up with him about the reasons behind that. I argued that late in the cycle, with a large installed base and mature development tools, the risk on new properties might actually be lower.

He responded, "I agree with you that it isn't necessary [to launch with new hardware], but [publishers] are all reluctant to do it."

I wonder, looking at this data, if we aren't seeing consumers giving publishers a very good reason to be conservative and only put their big money on sure bets late in the generation. If you're not a guaranteed win like LEGO Batman 2 or Borderlands 2, then they're extremely skittish about investing too much because consumers are choosing only the very top tier titles.

In a market like this one, it isn't so much that no one is making money but rather that only the well-to-do can afford to place the winning bets.

Or, to put it another way, would the original Borderlands have succeeded in the very market in which its sequel thrived?

Related Jobs

Cloud Imperium Games
Cloud Imperium Games — Santa Monica, California, United States

Art Outsourcing Manager
Cloud Imperium Games
Cloud Imperium Games — Santa Monica, California, United States

Gameplay Programmer
2K — Novato, California, United States

Senior Engine Programmer
Big Fish Games
Big Fish Games — Seattle, Washington, United States

Engineering Manager- Studios


Dave Ingram
profile image
Thanks Matthew, this is very revealing data. I wonder, do the digital sales figures include f2p revenue? F2p is growing so popular these days that excluding revenue data from this segment could greatly skew the results.

Also, I see a trend towards playing free games (whether monetized or not) that grows alongside the trend towards mobile gaming, which could also account for decreasing revenues, even as product usage rises.

I would be willing to bet that if we could get our hands on the data we would find that the number of game consumers across all segments are going up, while revenues are going down at the same time.

Chris Hendricks
profile image
This sounds a lot like the movie industry lately. You still have huge blockbusters, and you still have low-budget films that easily make their money back, but the middle-of-the-road has been having difficulty.

People still want to be entertained, they just pay for the things that they "know" will entertain them.

Chris Hendricks
profile image
Fair enough... I was making a pretty sweeping generalization, there.

Joachim Tresoor
profile image
That makes me wonder if this isn't all just a result of the uncertainty in the economy as a whole, in stead of the end of this console generation. Hard to tell from the data presented here.

Adam Bishop
profile image
I think without including revenue from Steam and other similar services it's really hard to draw an accurate picture. For example, I still consider myself primarily a console gamer, but in the past 6 months or so on PC I've bought Diablo 3, Torchlight 2, Guild Wars 2, and the Walking Dead in addition to a number of older games that I've bought through Steam's sales. Easily half, possibly more, of my game spending this year has been on PC digital download services. I don't know how common my experience is, but I think it's probably common enough that the numbers here are failing to capture a significant portion of the market. That doesn't help console manufacturers who are missing that retail money, but I do think it's an important part of the "core" gaming market.

EDIT: And I forgot Kickstarters. Those probably aren't enough to drastically change the revenue figures, but I've funded a number of those on PC too.

Laura Stewart
profile image
Another factor in the market might be games themselves. Later in the generation, to be new and compete with each other, games are getting longer and harder to beat. There are only so many hours in a day, so much sick leave a year.

Paul Marzagalli
profile image
Sick leave? Who would ever call in sick to play a game they were really into? What a horrible insinuation to make!

*cough* ahem... :-D

Bob Johnson
profile image
Nothing is going to "improve" to any degree that counts in October.

Wii U will iikely change that in November and December. I think enough early adopter demand will be there - supply willing. And ultimately this will be additive to the decreased Wii, 360 and PS3 sales.

I would say the so-called shrinkage of the middle of the market is more a byproduct of the sheer size of the new and used back catalogs for each console at this point in their lifecycle. It is difficult for the consumer to justify a $60 title when you can get a highly rated older title for $10 unless the $60 new title is one of the few high priority titles that make it on everyone's list.

Also remember much of this shrinkage in the middle market is literally because no titles are being made in this segment. Much of the segment was occupied by Will shovelware.

I think the advantage of launching new IP with new hardware is consumers have little to nothing to buy for their machines at launch and in the first year or two after and thus will be more likely to take chances on new titles. They are eager to use their new machines and show them off and see what they can do. There are no used titles to choose from either. And these consumers are the early adopters.

In the end the trick for determining when to launch a new IP is to have a new fun to play IP in the first place. Then the answer is easy - most anytime - just maybe not the same week as a CoD or Halo etc.

Ujn Hunter
profile image
I agree... I don't see a mid-tier. It seems to be either AAA Blockbuster or Shovelware. The PS2 had tons of middle market games... I don't think they exist anymore in this generation.

Alex Nichiporchik
profile image
People have played and will play. Where they get their media and which device they use to consume it is changing.

Absence of Steam from this data is a good example. I used to go out into the store and buy games on disc. Now it's easier to do the 1-click-purchase on Steam, go make coffee and play the game.

Then what do you do with Core games on the iPad? They're making some serious sales. The Walking Dead is a great example. Rayman for iOS was phenomenal. Assassin's Creed wasn't too bad either. When a really good RTS built for the iPad comes out, that'll make even more people get the device and eat into PC software sales.

Then what do you do with free to play games? They're not just Facebook. League of Legends, DOTA2, Team Fortress 2 just to name a few.

Yes, the traditional software sales are shrinking, but it doesn't mean the money is going away from the industry. It's just shifting to different places, to different consumption methods.

John Flush
profile image
I can't speak of the industry at large, but I can say that my habits have changed because I have such a large backlog to play through there just isn't a point to pay full price anymore. I can play the numerous amounts of games I have on hand right now until holiday or summer sales. Because the consoles have stagnated there is little reason to change the behavior - a new game today will be a new game tomorrow for me only with a better price and there isn't any technical jump to make me 'need' to play something sooner.

With that said though, most of my friends did get Borderlands - mainly because to play multiplayer you all have to get it at the same time. The one friend that caved forced everyone else they play with to cave too for fear of being left behind.

Joseph Legemah
profile image
i think we're just seeing a higher shift to digital sales, because the biggest selling games in September were both Guild Wars 2 and WoW: Mists of Pandaria, both selling at a rate of basically 3:1 digital vs retail.