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October 14, 2019
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Level Design for Combat

by Max Pears on 08/14/19 10:17:00 am   Expert Blogs   Featured Blogs

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The following blog post, unless otherwise noted, was written by a member of Gamasutra’s community.
The thoughts and opinions expressed are those of the writer and not Gamasutra or its parent company.

 

Hello Everyone! 

It has been a long, long time since I have written an article but what can I say Inspiration hit me! Before I begin, I want to say the way that inspiration struck all came across by taking part in an online course I recently just finished on CGMA which was ten weeks long. Thank you very much to Em Schatz for putting the course together and to Patrick Haslow for being a great tutor and taking the time to review my work. 

With the projects that I have been working on, a lot of combat spaces have been designed by myself and by my teammates. So I have seen a lot of AI blood shed, as well as seen some good and bad examples of levels for combat.  While working on this course one of the weeks we are asked to design a combat space (Ranged combat with guns). I completed the level and it is not the perfect example of a combat space, but it is one that I am extremely proud of. After this it got me thinking, “What makes a good combat level?” 

The question yet still haunting me, I decided to try to find out more. Sadly, there are not as many resources as I had thought would be available (Of the actual level design approach to making, not just deconstructions. If you know some great ones please do send them over to me). 

This is a great article though so please do read this, it was another inspiration for this article. 

Past Thoughts

I even went back to think about how I was taught at my University, and how bad my levels then were for combat. For what plays such a massive role in the gaming industry we were not taught anything about this topic: How to design levels for the purpose of Combat.

Now with my xp of working in the industry for a while, making different spaces for combat, I finally feel that I can help. Hopefully, someone who reads this will find this useful, and it will also build a topic of discussion for many more and far better designers than me to help us understand Level Design for Combat. (see how I worked the title, into the article? Pretty impressive.) 

Keep in mind that I will only be talking about Combat involving guns, designing for close quarter combat, or turn-based combat will not be mentioned here. (Here is a great article on DMC’s combat design)  This article will only be focused on the level design involvement of combat as well, not breaking down anything to with weapon or mechanic design. 

With that out of the way I am going to be breaking down how to create a level built for gun combat step by step. Let Us Design It!


Metricts

One of the first steps to designing a good combat space is first by understanding your Metrics. The subject of metricts I do not feel is mentioned enough when creating a level and how vital it is. Metrics determines the spaces of your levels, how high the cover should be, how wide corridors are, and much more. 

As for who decides the metrics for your game, that is a task for the level design team. It comes with experimenting in a ‘Gym’ it is tough to decide as you must decide by what feels right. I personally have only been involved with it once in my career and it is a tough thing to figure out. 

Create spaces for you and your teammates to test

(This here is a ruler where I would time the players movement speed and jumping length) 

(having a range of boxes I used this to test jumping heights, single and double)

You get the point that I am making. Once you have these gyms set up, have others test them out to see which they agree feels the best. These numbers and sizes will change depending on the view of your game, TPP, FP, Isometric, etc. Once you have the metrics, make sure that you are constantly checking them. (Side note, make sure that the document is easy to read and people understand it from first glance) 

Here is an example of what I put together when creating my combat level:

From what you can see, the documents are very easy to read and you roughly get a sense of scale when looking at them. (Again these are not perfect documents, as it would be good to have tables listing the numbers on the documents as well so designers can have one place to look quickly without scrolling down several pages to get to the info they need) With these figures you have a great starting point, make sure that you are constantly referring to these documents. 

This is super important as not only does it allow you to make sure the architecture of your world is to scale. It allows you as a level designer to start understanding how verticality on two floors can play into combat, how to signal to players which rooms are safe while others they must be on their toes. The final point on this is now how you can combine the believability and theme of your architecture with the great feel of your gameplay.    

A rule of thumb when creating metrics (Again all depends on your game, in the world of game/level design there are no hard rules only suggestions and what suits your game the best) is to make sure that your differences between a main door vs a side door, a main corridor vs a side corridor. Is that the main is double the size of your side, the reason for this is it is visually different. Increasing your main door size by just 1m is not visually distinct enough, so try to do it by doubling as visually it makes an impact on the players’’ 

Now you may be thinking that our time working with sexy metrics is over, but oh no no no there is still some fun to be had here, sweet child. We have set up the rules for our architecture but now we need to set up rules for the combat spaces themselves. 

Because we were smart enough to set up the metrics for the architecture before it makes things a little easier for us. With the combat spaces, the elements you want to focus on are:

  • Correct Cover Height & Width
  • Cover Spacing (Buffer Zone) 
  • Cover rules on Architecture
  • Weapon Range
  • Enemy Archetypes

Cover Height & Width

This is an easy one, for this we are focusing on what dimensions the player can use for cover, from low to high cover. Making sure that it is clear and readable to the player what is cover and what is not.

 

Cover Spacing

Now this one is extremely important and should be one you follow very closely. This here is the distance between covers, we use this to make sure that cover is not just randomly scattered all over the place. That it is clear for players to understand a cover route through the combat, but also that AI can make it’s way towards the player too. There could be other technical reasons too, but this is a very important to follow these rules. 
 

Cover Rules on Architecture

As you have seen above we have metrics for say our doors and windows, but in order for us to not just have these set up for traversal we need to think about how to best use them for combat. Making sure that there is always cover on a door so players do not walk into a room and get blasted in the face. How players can use windows as a sniping spot, etc. 

Weapon Range

In most games that involve guns, there is a whole array of weaponry with some games like Boarderlands having over a Billion Guns! With that in mind, it is important to build spaces to help encourage certain styles of play. Thinking about sniper nests or areas for players to flank and use short-range weapons like a shotgun to attack the enemy from behind. 

Before we do all this though we need to understand how far these weapons can shoot, what is the best distance to use said weapons. 

Enemy Archetypes

In your games there will more than likely be different enemies within your game. Again like the weapon range we as level designers need to make sure that we build spaces that allow these enemies to have the best space to shine, show off their skillset but provide players cool and unique ways to win.

By understanding these enemy types, we as LDs can build unique challenges which force players to strategize, who they should take out first or even work together as a team to coordinate an attack.  

How Player's Avatars Hold Their Gun

This topic here was not mentioned on the list above as it is not the biggest thing to consider but it is a detail worth knowing. What am I referring to when talking about how the avatar holds the gun? I am referring to will the avatar be right handed or left handed. Small detail but a detail nonetheless as then you must make sure that there is cover with an opening for the weapon. If the avatar holds it more to the right, then on door frames make sure there is cover to the left, and visa versa. (A lot of game though now allow the player to switch the shoulders of which they aim from)

Now you can see the amount of planning that goes into creating a good combat space before we even have opened the editor. These steps are vital in creating a great combat space for your game. 

(Please note these design pages which I have put together are to show you an example of what to plan, when you are putting your design doc together you can do way better, these are just to show you what I mean, use these as a learning point and make fare better documentation team!) 

Conclusion

This article has become an extremely long article already and there is still more to cover. The biggest take away, is the amount of planning and preparation that goes into designing a combat level. I know we have not even gotten into the editor but all of these help make your life way easier before you even block it out, hopefully even saving you time in the future. 

o this is where I will end part 1, but we will move on to the next step following this, such as paper design and the actual Blockout. We will be breaking down the blockout I mentioned at the beginning of the article, breaking it down. 

Please Support

If you have enjoyed this then please be sure to check out my podcast (Level Design Lobby): 
iTunes: https://apple.co/2CwAkqD
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2ybMelK
YouTube: https://bit.ly/2XUXcLf
SoundCloud: https://bit.ly/2XYIo9K

If you want to reach out to me, to give me some suggestions on good combat spaces or to see my bite size level design tips then please check me out on Twitter

Catch you later with Part 2.


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