This site is operated by a business or businesses owned by Informa PLC and all copyright resides with them. Informa PLC's registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. Registered in England and Wales. Number 8860726.
In addition to clamping, it's also important to ensure that the resolution ratios used in shaders is representative of the actual viewport ratio, rather than just your application's desired ratio. This is easily obtained by recalculating the ratio from the dynamic viewport dimensions. For example, in the sample code function DynamicResolution::SetScale, the following is performed after ensuring the scale meets boundary criteria:
After rendering the 3D scene, the viewport area needs to be scaled to the back buffer resolution. A variety of filters can be used to perform this, and the sample implements several examples as described here.
Point filtering is a fast basic filter option. Scaling from a 0.71x ratio dynamic viewport to 1280x720 takes ~0.4ms.
Bilinear filtering is almost as fast as point filtering due to hardware support, and it reduces the aliasing artifacts from edges by smoothing, but also blurs the scene. Scaling from a 0.71x ratio dynamic viewport to 1280x720 takes ~0.4ms.
Bicubic filtering is only noticeably better than bilinear for resolutions of 0.5x the back buffer, and its performance is 7x slower even using a fast bicubic filter [Sigg 2005]. Scaling from a 0.71x ratio dynamic viewport to 1280x720 takes ~3.5ms.
Adding some noise to point filtering helps to add high frequencies, which break the aliasing slightly at a low cost. The implementation in the sample is fairly basic, and improved film grain filtering might artistically fit your rendering. Scaling from a 0.71x ratio dynamic viewport to 1280x720 takes ~0.5ms.
Noise Offset Filtering
Adding a small random offset to the sampling location during scaling reduces the regularity of aliased edges. This approach is common in fast filtering of shadow maps. Scaling from a 0.71x ratio dynamic viewport to 1280x720 takes ~0.7ms.
Temporal Anti-aliasing Filtering
This scaling filter requires extra support during the initial rendering path to render odd and even frames offset by half a pixel in X and Y. When filtered intelligently to remove ghosting artifacts, the resulting image quality is substantially improved by sampling from twice as many pixels. This filtering method is described in greater depth in its own section below. Scaling from a 0.71x ratio dynamic viewport to 1280x720 takes ~1.1ms, and has almost the same quality as rendering to full resolution.
Temporal Anti-aliasing Details
Temporal anti-aliasing has been around for some time; however, ghosting problems due to differences in the positions of objects in consecutive frames have limited its use. Modern rendering techniques are finally making it an attractive option due to its low performance overhead.
The basic approach is to render odd and even frames jittered (offset) by half a pixel in both X and Y. The sample code does this by translating the projection matrix. The final scaling then combines both the current and previous frames, offsetting them by the inverse of the amount they were jittered. The final image is thus made from twice the number of pixels arranged in a pattern similar to the dots of the five side on a die, frequently termed a quincunx pattern.
Figure 5: Temporal Anti-Aliasing basic principle
Used along with dynamic resolution, this approach gives an increased observed number of pixels in the scene when the dynamic resolution is lower than the back buffer, improving the detail in the scene. When the dynamic resolution is equal or higher to the back buffer, the result is a form of anti-aliasing.
Figure 6: Result of Temporal AA when dynamic resolution is lower than that of the back buffer
Figure 7: Result of Temporal AA when dynamic resolution is equal or higher to that of the back buffer
In order to get increased texture resolution, a MIP LOD bias needs to be applied to textures. In Microsoft Direct3D* 11, use a D3D11_SAMPLER_DESC MipLODBias of -0.5f during the 3D scene pass. Additionally, the sampler used during scaling needs to use bilinear minification filtering, for example: D3D11_FILTER_MIN_LINEAR_MAG_MIP_POINT.
In order to reduce ghosting, we use the velocity buffer written out for motion blur. Importantly, this buffer contains the velocity for each pixel in screen space, thus accounting for camera movement. A scale factor is calculated from both the current and previous frame's velocity and applied to the previous frame's colour to determine its contribution to the final image. This scales the contribution based on how similar the sample location is in real space in both frames.
The sample has K tuned to give what the author considers to be the best results for a real time application, with no ghosting observed at realistically playable frame rates. Screenshots do expose a small amount of ghosting in high contrast areas as in the screenshot below, which can be tuned out if desired.
For games, transparencies present a particular problem in not always rendering out velocity information. In this case, the alpha channel could be used during the forwards rendering of the transparencies to store a value used to scale the contributions in much the same way as the velocity is currently used.
An alternative to this approach for ghosting removal is to use the screen space velocity to sample from the previous frame at the location where the current pixel was. This is the technique used in the CryENGINE* 3, first demonstrated in the game Crysis* 2 [Crytek 2010]. Intriguingly, LucasArts' Dmitry Andreev considered using temporal anti-aliasing, but did not due to the use of dynamic resolution in their engine [Andreev 2011]. The author believes these are compatible, as demonstrated in the sample code.
Figure 8: Temporal Anti-Aliasing with velocity scaling and moving objects