From Casual to Core: A Statistical Mechanism for Studying Gamer Dedication
June 5, 2002 Page 1 of 3
increasing popularity of interactive entertainment and its acceptance
as a form of popular culture, the average gamer is no longer a stereotypical
geek and obsessive hobbyist. If the game industry is to further broaden
gaming's appeal to mass-market audiences, it must learn to fulfil its
customers' desires, but there is still a great deal of uncertainty about
who they are and what they want. Unfortunately, the industry does little
formal market research. Publishers tend to rely on focus groups, warranty-card
returns, and Internet gossip to understand the state of the market.
These mechanisms have the advantage of being inexpensive, but all are compromised by the fact that their participants are self-selected and almost certainly atypical consumers. Focus groups and Internet messages also represent extremely small samples on which to base important decisions, and much of their content consists of unquantified observations. In his eight years of employment at Electronic Arts, Ernest Adams never saw a single document offering a quantitative statistical analysis, backed up by a properly-conducted poll, of the state of the market.
Notably highlighted by Ernest Adams' Designers Notebook entry "Casual vs. Core" and Scott Kim's GDC 2001 presentation "Designing Web Games that Make Business Sense", professionals in the game industry tend to think of gamers as falling into one of two categories -- the hardcore and the casual. The characteristics that define these categories are usually vague and based on intuition and personal experience. We often hear the terms hardcore (also referred to as core, or traditional, gamers) and casual (mainstream, mass-market, and occasional gamers) being used freely by journalists, reviewers, and various gaming-related media, while failing to define precisely what it means to be one or the other. In this article, using a combination of relevant discussions and certain principles of consumer classification from academia, we shall propose a method for statistically distinguishing between different categories of gamer according to quantifiable criteria. Studies of consumer behaviour widely acknowledge the concept of consumer segmentation, and the importance of accurately targeting different types of customer. Consequently, knowing the preferences and idiosyncrasies of the most important entity in the industry -- the gamer -- takes us halfway towards the goal of total customer satisfaction.
Gamers can be described by a nearly infinite number of characteristics. Following the suggestions of Adams and Kim, we propose 15 variables that we believe are key to distinguishing between the hardcore and the casual gamer, and ways of measuring each for a given player. Once these data are gathered, they may be weighted to obtain a single numeric score, which determines the extent to which the player is a "core" or a "casual" gamer -- a value that we call gamer dedication.
The 15 Factors of Classification
Hardcore gamers are clearly different from casual gamers, and the characteristics of hardcore and casual gamers will also be different from those who are generally uninterested in interactive entertainment. Therefore, understanding the opposing ends of the spectrum, and the space in-between, with regard to consumer preference, opinion, knowledge and behaviour, is critical for the purpose of establishing any sort of gamer classification. Taking the characteristics mentioned by Adams (2000) and Kim (2001), as well as introducing a few of our own, the following discussion of The 15 Factors of Classification takes into account the most pertinent factors associated with the distinction between the different types of gamer.
|Hardcore gamers are: (taken from Kim)|
|1. Technologically savvy|
|2. Have the latest high-end computers/consoles|
|3. Willingness to pay (also supported by Adams)|
|4. Prefer violent/action games|
|5. Prefer games that have depth and complexity|
|6. Play games over many long sessions (also supported by Adams)|
|Hardcore gamers: (taken from Adams)|
|7. Hunger for gaming-related information|
|8. Discuss games with friends/bulletin boards|
|9. Play for the exhilaration of defeating (or completing) the game|
|10. Much more tolerant of frustration|
|11. Engaged in competition with himself, the game, and other players|
|12. Age at which first started playing games|
|13. Comparative knowledge of the industry|
|14. Indications of early adoption behaviour|
|15. Desire to modify or extend games in a creative way.|
Table 1: The 15 Factors (not in any particular order)
In each case we suggest a method for measuring these characteristics quantitatively.
- Technologically savvy More or less self-explanatory, we expect hardcore gamers to be more familiar with the latest releases and developments, and to show greater interest with regard to new gaming-related technologies as compared to casual gamers. This characteristic can be measured by presenting survey subjects with a large number of computer-game technology terms and acronyms, and asking them to match the term with its correct definition. This will provide a numeric score for the subject's degree of "technology savviness."
- Have the latest high-end computers/consoles Hardcore gamers will acquire the latest console platforms and/or PC hardware in order to keep up-to-date with the most recent trends. Furthermore, they are more likely to own, or have owned, a wide variety of older games platforms. Subjects may simply be asked which console platforms they own; in the case of PC gamers, what the performance characteristics of their machines are.
- Willingness to pay - A factor acknowledged by both Adams and Kim, hardcore enthusiasts are more inclined to spend money on games and games-related products. Conversely, casual gamers are more inclined to wait for price discounts and special offers before committing to a purchase. Kim further emphasises this point with the characterisation of casual gamers as "wanting games for free". This can easily be measured by asking survey subjects about their spending patterns.
Kim suggested that hardcore gamers prefer games that show comparatively
violent and action-intensive content. However, should a more generalised
terminology be required, we could re-phrase this to obtain a measure
for a gamers' comparative preference for certain types of game, rather
than solely for action/violent games. Because the definitions of "violence"
and "action" are subjective, controls could be established
by asking subjects about their preference for specific games, with the
games divided into categories based on their Entertainment Software
Rating Board descriptors.
- Prefer games that have depth and complexity Complementary to factor 4 above, hardcore gamers prefer games that deliver greater complexity, and which require a longer time to master, regardless of their themes. This can be objectively measured by asking subjects whether they prefer a game that takes more or less than a given amount of time to play through.
- Play games over many long sessions A factor supported by both Adams and Kim. Being the hardcore gamers' favourite hobby, they are likely to devote considerably more time playing games as compared to casual gamers. Subjects can be asked about their playing patterns.
- Hunger for gaming-related information Devouring everything from the latest news, previews and reviews, to interviews with industry experts, the hardcore gamer actively seeks gaming-related information through the Internet, games-magazines and books, etc. Subjects may be asked how much time they spend per week on these activities.
- Discuss games with friends/bulletin boards In addition to hunger for information (factor 7), hardcore gamers like to discuss gaming with others, and to regularly visit game-related Internet forums or chat rooms. Subjects may be asked how much time they spend per week on these activities.
- Play for the exhilaration of defeating (or completing) the game Hardcore gamers will play persistently for the enjoyment and exhilaration of defeating the game, and are likely to be more forgiving of aesthetic flaws such as poor acting or a trivial plot. This can be measured by asking subjects to rate the relative importance to them of a number of factors in their motivation for continuing to play a given game (not for choosing to purchase the game). If "I want to beat/finish it" is considered highly important, the subject is more likely to be a hardcore player.
- Much more tolerant of frustration Hardcore gamers are much more tolerant of difficult games, or games that might frustrate them in some way. Casual gamers are more likely to abandon such games. The best way of measuring this quality objectively would be to present all the subjects with the same, moderately frustrating or difficult game, and measuring the length of time they play before abandoning it.
- Engaged in competition with himself, the game, and other players Hardcore gamers want to feel the satisfaction and reward of competing and improving his skill against other players and/or computer-controlled opponents. Casual gamers would not, for example, be inclined to play endlessly to their reduce lap-times in Gran Turismo by a fraction of a second, or have the patience to learn every combination attack in Street Fighter, or even to achieve a higher score. Subjects can be asked to rank a number of factors in their decision to continue to play a game. If improving her skills, competing with others, or achieving the highest score (whether above those of other players or her own previous efforts), are ranked as important, this would tend to suggest that the subject is a hardcore player.
- Age at which first started playing games Evidence from respectable sources such as the IDSA and ELSPA indicates that the gaming audience is growing older. One of the reasons for this is that those who started playing at a young age have gradually matured alongside the development of the industry. Taking this into consideration, this factor takes into account the extent to which they are familiar and experienced with playing games. This can be quantified by asking subjects at what age they started playing games as a hobby. If they started at a young age, and have since been regular gamers, then this would indicate those who are more experienced and knowledgeable.
- Comparative knowledge of the industry Complementary to factors 7 and 12 above, hardcore gamers are likely to posses a much greater level of knowledge and experience with regard to the various facets of gaming (of ranging from knowledge about the latest releases, to design issues and developments within the industry). However, the hunger for information (factor 7) does not directly translate into a good knowledge base. For example, a casual gamer may consider himself hungry for information, but only towards certain things (such as latest releases, reviews and prices). The hardcore gamer, on the other hand, is likely to show broader knowledge and awareness of industry activities and trends, new technologies, and game development methods. Subjects can be asked to classify a number of statements about games and the game industry as true or false. Those who classify a large number correctly can be said to be comparatively more knowledgeable and aware.
of early adoption behaviour
Early adoption behaviour (EAB) as defined in consumer-marketing literature,
is an undeniable and salient characteristic that defines the behaviour
of consumers. EAB describes consumers or individuals who are first to
adopt the latest in trends or fashions. Current theory suggests consumers
who exhibit EAB do so in order to establish themselves as part of an
innovative and desirable social hierarchy (see, for example, Fisher
and Price, (1992)). In terms of the games industry, this describes the
behaviour of hardcore gamers, who are willing to spend exponentially
more on new hardware and software that are yet to be released officially
(through grey-market imports) in order to satisfy their hobby. In addition,
for hardcore gamers (particularly those in the UK), the detrimental
effect of localizing games from the NTSC broadcasting standard (US and
Japanese markets) into PAL (UK) further strengthens the demand and reason
for importing NTSC games directly. (Localized games converted from NTSC
to PAL typically exhibit slower game speeds, unsightly screen borders,
and less attractive packaging.) Furthermore, hardcore gamers would not
necessarily acquire imports or gaming-related items solely for the purpose
of overcoming the delay of official releases, but also to possess items
that have a rare or intrinsic value. Consequently, this factor attempts
to obtain a measure of EAB from the various categories of gamer. Subjects
can be asked a number of questions about EAB, such as whether they have
ever waited in line before a software store opened to buy a new game
on its first day of release, and if they regularly acquire imports.
Those who answer a number of these questions affirmatively can be said
to be "early adopters" and therefore probably hardcore gamers.
- Desire to modify or extend games in a creative way Hardcore gamers frequently modify commercial games in a variety of ways. These can range from simple changes such as giving characters new "skins" to cause their appearance in the game to be different, to programming "aim-bots", separate pieces of software that work in concert with an existing game to give the player an unfair advantage over others. Casual gamers seldom take the time to make these kinds of modifications; they tend to play the game "as-is" out of the box. Subjects can be asked whether they have ever engaged in some of these activities. The more that they have, the more likely they are to be hardcore gamers.
Page 1 of 3