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Still, there is little feedback on what effect the data will have on the game, and therefore there is still a great deal of iteration time necessary to test changes, tweak values, and so on. This is due to the fact that these tools are still based on the implementation model of design.
That is, the data that is edited directly by the user is equivalent to the data used by the underlying game system, and is therefore more complex than the user can fully understand.
Iteration is still necessary, even though the tool has spared the user from typographical mistakes that would have otherwise caused serious errors (crashing). Typos have been eliminated, but errors of logic are still prevalent.
Data abstraction begins to take place in these tools, albeit on a small scale. Anytime a text box is replaced by a drop down list of enumerated values, the internal representation of the data (a number) is being replaced with something better understood by the user.
Color pickers, graphs, calendars, progress bars, and just about any graphical representation of data imaginable all serve this purpose. Still, the individual bits of data do not represent a cohesive whole.
To achieve that, we must absorb the individual data points into a larger, more conceptual picture through a kind of abstraction. We hide the actual data behind a facade that represents the objects that the data describes.
Consider a 3D model. The actual data is a list of vertex positions, weighting, UV mapping coordinates, RGBA values, and so on. Editing each of these values directly would offer extreme precision, but would take much longer than using a modeling program to generate the same type of data with much better results.
The modeling program hides the complexity of the data by showing what the data represents instead of the data itself, giving the user the ability to edit the model data in a way that makes a lot more sense.
When tools abstract the actual data appropriately, iteration times are significantly reduced because both typos and logic errors are all but eliminated. The abstract view of the data gives the user the ability to understand its purpose. The final data still needs to be tested in game, obviously, but the data created from the tool should be sound.
The hard part, of course, is finding the best representation of the data. This is achieved by understanding the users of the tool. The closer that representation is to the way the user understands it, the easier the tool will be to use.
Sometimes, we talk about users in a way that suits our own desires. "I think the player will really like this," is often heard as an excuse to include some feature in a game.
The flip side is just as easily said, and no argument can be won when two developers disagree on this point.
That's because the user is usually not very well defined. Everyone has their own idea who the target audience is, even with tools. That's where user models come in.
User models are concrete, fictional end users that have their own goals, desires, hobbies, families and even names. They aren't necessarily the "average user," but they are representative of a typical user.
A single piece of software may have several user models that need to use the software, but the key is to design an interface so that it satisfies one of those users very well. That user is the primary user model, and the entire team needs to be on board with who the primary user is to avoid arguments like the one above.
At one company I worked for, the lead designer had come up with some ideas for the level design tool. He had done this on his own based on what he felt the goals of the team were.
The tools team, including myself, dismissed his design ideas since we supposedly knew better, having a greater understanding of what the underlying data was that would be edited in the tool. I wish we had understood the user model concept and used it at that time to start a conversation over what the design should be.
Here was a guy with a stake in the success of the tool and a great deal of knowledge of those who would use it, but we didn't have the tools to really communicate effectively. The tools team should have worked closely with him, as a representative of the end users, to create a primary user model, and decide on the real goals of the design team.
As it was, the level editor was never what it should have been, and the level designers spent much of their time struggling with it.