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The Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) is like an iceberg - a lot of marketing hype on top, and exciting, but challenging technology under the surface. The captain of the Titanic overlooked a seemingly innocent chunk of ice and regretted it. Likewise, if you ignore DVD's game potential because of its failure to live up to the initial publicity, you run the risk of sinking your future. In order to avoid such a catastrophe, here is some information necessary to start DVD development, including a review of the technology, an exploration of how DVD is being used by some game developers today and an examination of authoring and playback tools.
Although certain aspects of DVD technology (such as disc capacity and format) have been well publicized, many features are virtually unknown. This dearth of information is not accidental. The current cost to obtain the DVD 1.0 Specification is $5,000. While $5,000 may be an insignificant sum for a large conglomerate, some of us are hesitant to spend such a small fortune.
Like floppy disks, DVD has a variety of capacities. The majority of the early discs will use single-layer technology and can be either single- or double-sided (with capacities of 4.7GB and 9.4GB, respectively). In the future, more complex content will utilize single- or double-sided, dual-layer discs, which hold approximately 8.5GB per side.
DVD Compression Algorithms
DVD encompasses numerous formats, the most important being DVD-ROM and DVD Video. From a programmer's perspective, DVD-ROM can be considered simply a high-capacity CD-ROM. By contrast, DVD Video (or DVD Movie) enhances DVD-ROM by dictating how multimedia information is stored and played back from the disc.
Most DVD Video titles will use MPEG-2 for video compression/ decompression, whereas MPEG-2 is optional for DVD-ROM. Although MPEG-2 has noticeably better picture quality than other compression schemes, it is extremely processor intensive (software decoding of a four megabit MPEG stream consumes 100% of a MMX Pentium, leaving no bandwidth for decompression of other DVD streams). As a result, DVD titles will require MPEG-2 hardware acceleration to enable playback for the foreseeable future.
In terms of audio, DVD Video uses Dolby's AC-3 audio compression technology. AC-3 was originally designed for theaters and the professional audio market, and provides multichannel surround sound without tricks (such as manipulating stereo digital audio data so that it appears to contain more than two channels). Each AC-3 stream contains six audio channels: left, center, and right channels for the front of the room, left and right surround channels, plus a sixth channel for extra bass sounds to reinforce crashes, eruptions, explosions, and so on. Unlike the other channels, the sixth channel may only contain sounds between 3Hz and 120Hz - as a result, it is nicknamed the ".1 channel" (.1 indicates a channel with limited frequency range). AC-3 is sometimes said to contain 5.1 channels of audio.
All North American DVD players must also be able to play uncompressed, linear Pulse Code Modulation (or PCM) streams. These streams have sample rates between 48-96kHz, and can be sampled at 16 or 24 bits. Players may optionally support MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 audio streams.
The Fledgling DVD Game Market
Although DVD is exciting technology, the immaturity of tools and questions about the initial market size have caused many game vendors to hesitate jumping into this arena. After all, cool technology doesn't pay the rent. However, a few cutting-edge developers have evaluated the DVD gaming market and believe it to be profitable. These vendors can be divided into the following categories: those who view DVD as a huge CD-ROM, those who are enhancing their existing CD products for DVD-ROM, and those who fully exploit DVD Video technology.
The first type of DVD game vendor uses DVD as a monstrous CD-ROM. Companies in this category transfer content from one or more CDs to a single DVD-ROM and then ship it. While this approach is clearly the most conservative, it allows access to DVD-ROM customers with minimal risk. It is also an especially effective technique for games that span several CD-ROMs, since players aren't annoyingly reminded to change the CD in the heat of a game play. One such product is OBSIDIAN by Rocket Science Games. The original CD-ROM version of OBSIDIAN is huge - it comprises five discs of QuickTime content. Kim Hilquist, OEM manager for Rocket Science, noted that not only has DVD eliminated the need to swap discs, but the increased speed of DVD-ROM drives enables smoother video playback.
The second type of DVD vendor enhances its existing games for DVD by utilizing MPEG-2 video and AC-3 audio. Xiphias, an edutainment developer, is one such vendor. Steve Kaplan, a project manager at Xiphias, is impressed by the technological potential of DVD. "For the first time, video quality [of a DVD product] does not distract the user. The picture quality is quite clear, and at some points, stunning," Kaplan says.
Although Kaplan is upbeat about DVD, he does point out some problems. First, the tools used to create DVD titles are very immature and can make title development laborious. For instance, in order to obtain movie content, Xiphias had to send video tapes to a third-party vendor to be converted into DVD's special .VOB file format. Since Xiphias uses their own custom navigation engine, they had to manually create navigation paths in the .VOB file.
Another difficulty is the variation in performance and quality for MPEG-2 and AC-3 decoders. Since performance of hardware and software decompressors varies dramatically, game vendors must author content with data rates that are playable on a variety of decoders.
Like Xiphias, Westwood Studios also plans to soup up an existing CD title, COMMAND AND CONQUER, for DVD-ROM. Because the existing game uses two CDs, gamers get the immediate benefit of only needing one disc. Mike Sack, marketing director at Westwood, indicates that the company will also enhance this title with MPEG-2 video and AC-3 audio.
The final type of game vendor creates a true DVD title, utilizing all of the features in DVD Video. Tsunami Media is one such vendor, and they truly have been smitten with the potential of the DVD market. While most companies have serious reservations about DVD's revenue possibilities, Don Soper, a producer for Tsunami Media, believes this to be a lucrative market. As a result, Tsunami became one of the first vendors to release a game (SILENT STEEL) on DVD-ROM . The DVD-ROM version of SILENT STEEL is enhanced with AC-3 audio and MPEG-2 video and only requires one disc - as opposed to the four discs making up the CD-ROM version.
Now, Tsunami plans to leverage the multimedia enhancements in the DVD-ROM version of SILENT STEEL to create a DVD Video version of the game. Tsunami Media deliberately chose authoring tools that could generate either DVD-ROM or DVD Video titles. As a result, the DVD Video version of the game should have the look, feel and performance of the PC version, while retaining platform independence.
Soper indicates that the DVD Video version of SILENT STEEL will conform to the DVD 1.0 Specification and should work on any DVD-compliant player. When asked about programming restrictions imposed by DVD Video, Soper seems unfazed. "If you're creative, there's enough support to do a lot more things than one might think at first glance." He is also confident that the remote controls utilized by DVD players will be more than adequate for game play. This is significant since DVD remotes are slanted toward DVD menu input and button manipulation (remotes have a numeric keypad and menu shortcuts), with virtually no game-specific features such as a joystick control.
While Tsunami is upbeat about DVD, they realize that it has limitations for gaming. First, they have been affected by immature state of the title-creation tools. For example, debugging a title is an arduous process. A disc must be authored, sent to manufacturing, and then tested. Every time a bug is found, this cycle must be repeated.
A second restriction is the type of games that can be written in DVD Video. Although this technology excels at movie-oriented titles such as SILENT STEEL, Soper doubts that the current DVD specification can handle fast-action 3D-graphics games.
The DVD Video Navigation Engine
Although DVD-ROM and DVD Video may share compression algorithms, DVD Video contains features not found on DVD-ROM. The most notable difference is that the content on DVD-ROM is platform specific, while DVD Video provides a platform-independent navigation engine for playing interactive movies (these movies potentially can be played on Windows 95, MacOS, and television-based consumer DVD players). This navigation engine requires a rigorous directory structure, which I'll explain briefly.
Every DVD Video disc must contain a VIDEO_TS directory, which contains only two types of files: .IFO and .VOB (Figure 1). These files are sorted by a DVD Video player to form Video Title Sets (VTS). A VTS is a grouping of all the files necessary to play a particular DVD Video title and is composed of one .IFO file and one or more .VOB files (Figure 2).
The .VOB extension is short for Video Object Set - it indicates that the file contains multimedia data. Many people are under the mistaken impression that .VOB files are equivalent to DVD Video. In reality, while it is possible to write a simple .VOB-only player, all of the interactive functionality in a .VOB file is abandoned when you don't play it with the associated .IFO file.
Both the Video Manager .IFO file and the VTS .IFO contain additional navigational data structures and a processor-independent interpreted language (sort of a miniature Java). These data structures are composed of the following objects: Program Chains, Part of Title, Programs, and Cells.
Program Chains (or PGCs) link related programs (or particular scenes) within a title. Their data structures govern how a given program plays. Simple titles may contain only one PGC. By contrast, multi-PGC titles containing two or more PGCs are used by complex discs requiring random access to a variety programs. A multi-PGC title can play programs linearly, randomly, or in shuffle mode.
Every program in a program chain is composed of elements called cells. Cells are the smallest navigational unit and tell the DVD player which portion of a .VOB file to decode.
Unlike program chains, which exist entirely in an .IFO file, cells are hybrid creatures; the data structures are defined in the .IFO file, and the multimedia content is found in the .VOB file. Each cell must start playback at a specific location in a .VOB file, referred to as a Video Object Unit (or VOBU). A VOBU is a container that houses both navigation packets, as well as multimedia packets (similar to the chunks found in an .AVI file).
While a VOBU is playing, the DVD player is able to obtain user input via on-screen buttons. You can tell the player how long a button (or buttons) should appear on the screen, and what to do when buttons are selected. Typically, the selection of a button causes the player to jump to a different location on the disc (Figure 3).