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Some Advice for the Aspiring Sound Designer
by Mark Kilborn on 06/18/13 05:15:00 pm   Expert Blogs

The following blog post, unless otherwise noted, was written by a member of Gamasutra’s community.
The thoughts and opinions expressed are those of the writer and not Gamasutra or its parent company.


In my career I've been on both sides of the interview table, so as a hiring manager I recognize some of the mistakes I sometimes see from new or junior audio applicants. A lot of these things were confusing or intimidating to me as I started out, so I figured I'd write a little post and address some of them. It sucks being confused/concerned about how to apply for jobs.

So here are some questions I had when I was getting started, and the answers I've learned along the way. I hope these help.


First, if you're seeking sound design roles, call yourself a Sound Designer. Don't obsess about your lack of shipped titles or experience. For the first year or two I was trying to get my foot in the door, I obsessed over whether it was disingenuous and/or presumptuous to call myself what I so desperately wanted to be. It was silly. If you design sound, you are a sound designer. Be confident about that.

But don't take it too far. I sometimes see people who refer to themselves as Audio Director, Creative Director, CEO, whatever of an independent audio company that has zero or minimal credits. This is a good way to elicit a sarcastic chuckle from a hiring manager. Don't oversell yourself. Be real.

If you're an especially funny person, you can be funny with your title. It's good to show some personality. I once saw someone refer to themselves as "Noisy Ninja." That made me laugh and left a positive impression. I also once knew a programmer who had the title "International Man of Leisure" on his business cards. Loved it. Of course, it helped that he was an absolutely incredible programmer.


It's amazing how many younger sound designers I've encountered that aren't actively working on sound design projects in whatever free time they have. You should always be working on projects, even if they're projects of your own creation with nobody else involved.

Always be making noise. It's a well-known Internet Fact that you have to spend 10,000 hours working at anything to become an expert. If believing that will get you to sit down and make noise, then believe it. Always be working on something. And if you're always working on something, you'll always have materials to put in your portfolio.

If you're looking for a game audio position, I strongly suggest you try to work on something interactive. Go download Unity Free, get a book on it, and build some little level with minimal interaction. Then create and implement the sound for it. You can do the same in UDK, which is also available for free. Interactive demos help you develop implementation skills, which are critical in most in-house full time game audio roles.


My gut tells me to say "Then go home and don't be a sound designer" to this argument, because I strongly value problem solving skills in candidates. But I'll give you an answer because it's a nice day and I'm being nice :).

There are cheap and free tools out there. Assuming you have a computer (and are likely using it to read this), for well under $1000 you can assemble enough stuff to make some noise.

Need a DAW? Go get Reaper. $60 for personal use. That's the price of a video game.

Need a WAV editor? Go get Audacity. Free.

Need some source material? Get a Sony PCM-M10. $200-250 depending on where you shop. Has a stereo X/Y omnidirectional mic pair built in, and they sound quite good. David Farmer, sound designer on the LOTR and Hobbit trilogies, turned me on to this thing. He uses his all the time.

Need some source material that you can't record yourself? You're in for a treat. First, there are three amazing sources for boutique sound effects libraries. Very cost effective, lots of cool stuff:

The Recordist -
Chuck Russom FX -
Rabbit Ears Audio -

If you want to browse a massive database and purchase/download individual recordings, hit up

Need some plugins? Lots of cheap and free options can be found at KVR ( If you want some amazing plugins for shocking prices, the Valhalla DSP ( plugins are an absolute steal.

Need an interface? Focusrite Scarlett 2i2. $200.

Need monitors? This one's always a killer, but if you can't afford anything good here, get a pair of headphones. AKG K240. $100.


I am not a lawyer, so I can't comment on the legality. What I WILL say is that I don't generally mind seeing this in a portfolio, as long as it's explicitly stated that you didn't work on the real game/movie/whatever and did it as a personal project. I haven't met many other Audio Directors who mind this either.

One caveat:

I would advise against redoing the sound of something and submitting it to the team that did the original work. So if you're going to send an audio portfolio off to the Blizzard audio team (hi guys!), for example, I wouldn't take the intro video of Starcraft 2, redesign the sound and send it to them. Send it to me or anyone else, sure, but not them. The only possible exception I would make is if you have done something absolutely out of this world and incredible, but even then I'd get independent verification, from someone more experienced, that socks will, in fact, be knocked off.

Remember, these people did the original work you're replacing. They're going to know this work intimately, and any mistakes or weaknesses you have will be extremely obvious to them. It's setting yourself up to be reviewed more aggressively.


The portfolios that make the strongest impression on me usually have some or all of the following traits:

01) Memorable, unique sound design. I want to hear sounds that I haven't heard before. I want to hear personality, detail. I want to be pulled in. Think of the most characteristic and memorable sounds you've heard in film and games. Shoot for that.

02) Good mix. Things should sound clear and understandable, not mushy and confusing. Powerful elements should feel powerful, not just a mess of muddy low end distortion. Frequency masking is bad, make sure you've got space for all your elements to live.

03) Dynamic range. Don't send me a flat mix of chaos. Ups and downs are good. Allow your mix to have some breathing room. Louder is not better.

04) A sense of depth. This is a weakness I hear in a lot of portfolios. I want things to sound like they are where they are, whether it's right in front of the camera or 100 yards away. This is all about EQ, reverb (early reflections especially) and volume. If you can get this right, you're ahead of a lot of people.

05) No library pulls. I've been listening to stuff in The General library since 1997. The grizzled ancients have been listening to it a LOT longer. We will probably recognize the sound you pulled from it and dropped straight into your project. Don't do that. It's always better to make your own content, or at least pull from a library and modify the content quite a bit.

06) Make it appropriate. If you've built up a collection of personal projects, send stuff that's appropriate for your target audience. I work on first person shooters. While I appreciate listening to well-done cartoony stuff, for example, it doesn't tell me if you'll be able to handle the sound design on a scene where the player is hanging from the bottom of a damaged helicopter as it spins over a major city that's on fire and currently experiencing an earthquake, a tsunami and rioting all at the same time. With guys shooting at him. And loud music. Speaking of music...

07) No music. You're applying for a sound design position. Don't put music, especially not someone else's music, in your reel. I want to hear your sound design work and nothing more.

The vast majority of game studios do not keep composers on staff. If music is your first love, go be a composer instead.

08) Interactivity. Video is good. Playable is better. I once submitted a portfolio to a company that included a FMOD project with assets, instructions on how to use everything, and a WAV file of me playing the stuff I submitted and narrating what I was doing. Got the job.

Do try to make interactive demos VERY easy to use though. I won't have the time to jump through hoops installing an old version of DirectX and all sorts of other stuff to get your demo running.

And do have a video of some sort, for those that are unable to play your interactive demo. Use Fraps or something and make a video of your interactive demo so there's a fall back just in case.


Keep videos short and sweet. 90-180 seconds. Put your best stuff first. No, really. Don't build up to the awesomeness. Start with a bang. Not every Audio Director will take the time to listen to your entire video. Assume you have about 10 seconds to hook them.

A cue sheet of some sort, explaining what you did, is excellent. If for a video, it should have times. If it's for something interactive, then just an explanation that makes sense.


If you have past professional experience as a sound designer, highlight it. If you don't, highlight your project work first.

Don't be afraid to list that you're a manager at Taco Bob's or Mooby's or something. And if you have some accomplishments there, tell me. People skills are people skills, wherever you pick them up.

Use a spell checker. In our field, a typo in the wrong place can break a game and prevent 200+ people from getting their work done. When someone in the audio department does that, I have to answer for it. Typos in your resume or cover letter show me that you're not paying attention to detail.

Cover letters are good. Explain to the reader why you want to work for them, what you can learn from them and what you can bring to the table for them.


When targeting a company, I strongly suggest familiarizing yourself with their back catalogue. Go play some of their games or, at the very least, watch gameplay videos on youtube. Look them up on Wikipedia, learn their history, know the names of any key personnell they have on their team. For example, if you're applying for a game audio gig at Arkane (makers of Dishonored), you should know who Harvey Smith is and what he does there.

Not much else. I'm probably forgetting some obvious questions, so if you have them, hit the comments section and I'll do my best. I hope this helps you find your way.

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Sam Hughes
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Excellent article, very insightful and very helpful. This has been a great time to read it as well as I am currently editing my show reel so thank you very much!

Dylan Dion
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What about an Audio Engineer? I know this speaks of "Sound Design", but wouldnt the act of Designs Sound be near the same as working a mixer, using mics, creating sound with instruments or objects or synthesizers, or creating ambient soundscapes?

Just asking as you say "07) No music. You're applying for a sound design position.I want to hear your sound design work and nothing more. If music is your first love, go be a composer instead."

A instance that is brought up is Fallout 3 or Fallout New Vegas's Soundscapes they plays ambient about the wasteland. Wouldnt that be "Music"? From soundscapes and ambience to Voice overs and interactive sounds (swords clanking, steel door slamming), wouldnt that all fall into "Audio Engineering" or Sound Design? Not just to "Sound" of a game.

I love music, but more over i love Audio. any sound, from its tiny waveform to an organized collection of noise. But sticking to a single aspect seems a bit narrow for such a large field/use. Someone experienced in many audio realms should apply it into many realms.

Mark Kilborn
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I've never seen a game studio that differentiates between Sound Designer and Audio Engineer (at least not the Audio Engineer role you're describing, I'll touch on this more in a minute). I know this role difference exists in film and television, but not really in games.

Sound designers in the game industry are doing everything: capturing, editing, integrating, mixing, etc. They're combined creative and engineering types, at least from an audio content perspective. A game sound designer should be able to edit sounds, run a mixer (though most of us are operating completely in the box these days), route stuff around, place mics, do field recording, integrate sounds into the game (by placing them in levels, scripting them, attaching them to movement using animation tools), you name it. It's a catch-all for Audio Guy/Girl. We're almost all generalists, though as I said, music is usually left to external composers.

So your Fallout example. It's been a while since I played those games. But, in general (I know there's an exception or two), music is done by someone who's not employed by the game studio full-time. A composer is contracted onto the project to write all of the stuff. Inon Zur scored the recent Fallout games (and did an amazing job), but he does not work as a full-time employee of Bethesda or Obsidian. He is a freelancer who is hired to write and record the music, then deliver it to the game's audio team who hook it up in the game. Composers are contracted and switched on when it's time to get the music done for the game, then their contract is closed when they're done (and they often go do other games for other people).

As I said, there are exceptions. I know Josh and Raison over at Gearbox write some music that's appeared in the Borderlands games. But that's not very common.

It's not bad for an internal person to have musical ability. I can play keyboards, and I used to play in and record bands. I find that skillset useful from time to time. But when I (and the vast majority of audio departments in this industry) am looking to hire a Sound Designer, I'm not looking for someone who wants to join my department and be the music guy. Because that's extremely unlikely. I want someone who's focused on creating sounds, editing, implementing, mixing, field recording, all the stuff I covered above.

Ultimately, your musical experience is of very low importance to me when I'm considering you for a position. What's important is whether you can make, integrate and mix amazing sounds. And if you deliver a portfolio to me that has some of your sound work in it, but it's buried in music you wrote (or someone else wrote, which REALLY confuses me but I've seen it before), then that impairs my ability to judge your sound work in isolation.

So it's just a bad idea in general. Submit your music when you're jockeying for a composer gig.

The "Audio Engineer" role in the gaming world is a programmer. This is a very rare creature that deals with the technology that drives sound playback in the game. They generally spend most of their time in whatever language the engine is built with, making sure the audio functionality of the game interfaces with the audio APIs of the various target platforms, adding new features for the audio department, dealing with bugs as they arise, etc.

William Rosas
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Thanks for the post, this answered all my questions and gave me a good idea of what I should be doing.

Thanks again!

Carlos Almeida
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Great Article!

I have been looking for something like this to guide me towards a starting point in my future Audio Design career and the information provided was spot on.

Appreciate it!


Stephen Johnson
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Thanks for the article!

I do have one question, how did you get your foot in the door to actually start working as a sound designer? I'm currently looking for an internship for this upcoming summer, but I can't seem to find many companies offering any type of audio internships. I've sent a copy of my resume and a cover letter to well over 50 companies, just inquiring about internships. All the ones that responded said they don't offer internships.

Thank you for your time,

Sarah Jacquez
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Great article. I am more interested in live audio as I operate within theatrical sound design but there were many things in here I found helpful. Totally in mind that I kind of work in a different realm of design I have a couple questions you may be able to give insight on regardless.

Do you have any tips on where to get cheapish equipment? I have been getting by with audacity and borrowing USB microphones that go right into my computer but lets face it the quality is nothing compared to getting a good interface, mic, and semi decent recording program. I've been in a fellowship in the last year and really realize what I've been missing. Anything I have recorded in the past I am just embarrassed by. I need to start building my audio equipment collection but buying equipment on a fellows pay is pretty much impossible. Hoping to get going with a tax return but getting the best deals would be awesome.

Also, since I work in theatre design, I have made music specifically for shows that acted as transitional moments or underscore and I would consider that as part of my design. Shouldn't this then be included in a portfolio? What are your thoughts on that?

I've been exclusively in theatrical design. Over all I am interested in live audio but would like to learn about other areas of audio design. What are some good resources to learn about this you can suggest?

As far as the engineering side goes any good reading material you can suggest?

I am wracking my mind trying to figure out what to do next year. Do you have any good websites where to find audio apprenticeships?

Tom Todia
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This was a great article Mark! It can be very confusing and overwhelming for people who are new to the field and want to make a good impression on an Industry veteran.