We have also seen the benefits of single-sharding with combat, in the form of increased complexity of conflicts in terms of both space and time. This heightened complexity results in a variety of roles within a conflict and less routine in waging it. In EVE we have had wars involving tens of thousands of players, pitched against each other for several years.
Whether a player contributes as a grunt on the front, a middle-man in logistics or as a long term strategic planner is up to them. The size and longevity of such conflicts clearly sets them apart as true content. Instead of being ephemeral and soon-to-be-forgotten skirmishes, these have become epic stories that fascinate players and build up reputation and true in-game power. Again, providing for the sheer scale of these encounters involves technical challenges, both on the server and client side.
For instance, one of the key pivotal wars in EVE (referred to without apparent irony as "The Great War") is generally agreed to have started in late 2005 when an old, established alliance of player corporations decided to eliminate a new but growing power for political and ideological reasons. The conflict snowballed, expanding its theatre of war, ebbing and flowing as some groups surrendered or collapsed and fresh ones joined the fray.
The organizations directly involved in the fighting at this stage contained, between them, just over 30,000 player characters. And, just as many groups were drawn into the fighting by the opportunity to settle old debts from previous wars, events from these three years of continuous warfare will likely fuel future conflicts.
Finally, there is the economy. Even though many people don't realize it, the economy is truly the pinnacle of social interaction. This is of course assuming that it is player-driven rather than being dictated by the designers. It is only in a truly player-driven economic environment that price fluctuations of items and commodities realistically start to reflect the sum total of the socio-economic landscape of the world. The market becomes a mirror of the activities of all participants in the game and it acts to change players' actions by its reflection.
Such a player-driven system doesn't strictly require a single shard to function, but it is catalyzed by the extended size inherent to single-sharding. A small economy will be manipulated by a few strong players and exposed to large fluctuations and instabilities. The larger the economy gets, the more resilient it becomes. Once beyond those instabilities, it truly starts to reflect the macro-economic landscape of the game-world, becoming an allpervading, autonomous, and ever-changing mass of social content that no designer could ever think of hand-crafting.
In line with our design goal to have a single shard in EVE, we quickly decided to go with procedurally generated content for the physical landscape of the game's universe. Fortunately, space lends itself rather well to that. The natural distance scales in a typical galaxy make aggregation points emerge naturally, so that the whole logic of a solar system can easily be run within one process space. For clients this goes down to an even finer granularity, as they only need to physically simulate their closest surroundings.
But apart from that, the whole back-end logic abstracts the notion of servers, such that requests within specific game logic (either on client or back-end) are transparently mapped to different nodes depending on context. We have a distributed logic running on top of a cluster of nodes. All data manipulated by these nodes is read and written to a single database that binds the whole world together (see Figure 1).
Some might argue that a single solar system thus acts as a kind of shard, but that is not correct. Any player from the global player base can enter any solar-system, and all economic activities will have immediate repercussions to the whole economy.
Furthermore, all the social structures mentioned above are truly global and transparently cross system boundaries. The solar system does introduce "crowding" problems, but these are problems that cannot really be solved except by game design.
For all practical purposes, the whole cluster acts and feels like a single process space. But this is not to say that this approach hasn't had its challenges. Here are a few.